Don’t know. Find out.

Legacy code is software that is no longer alive in someone’s head. No person has a mental model of how it works, no one has the stories of why.

This is already the common case in software systems, and it will only grow more normal.

Understanding an entire piece of the system is a luxury. We get it while we build it, but after a while, that knowledge fades too. Then, we reconstruct portions of the model we need for each change or fix.

As software grows, it is unrealistic to expect a complete mental model of it to exist, even across a team or company. Instead, aim for the ability to construct what we need as we need it.

Readable code is only the beginning. We need observability, discoverability, and operator interfaces that teach. We need to see what’s going on live. Only once we narrow in our target must we mentally simulate the runtime by reading code.

This is true at a large scale, too.

From early in Jeff Sussna’s book, Designing Delivery: “so-called rogue or shadow IT, where business units procure cloud-based IT services without the participation of a centralized IT department, makes it harder to control or even know which data lives” where.

Yeah! You won’t know all your data lives off the top of your head, nor is this recorded in a binder somewhere. You will know how to find out. And know that each location of data meets the security and recoverability needs of its business unit.

Let’s stop asking “how do we know?” We don’t know, usually. Instead, ask “how will we see?”